Waiting, waiting, waiting….

It won’t be long now before the Decorah, Iowa bald eagles’ eggs hatch. The anticipated first hatch date is April 1.  I’ve noticed a big change in the parent’s behavior – they are much more alert and on-guard while sitting on the nest. AND there is a dead body in the nest. Probably a rabbit, I would guess. Yum, just like mom used to make.

Regal Cindy: Roger Garber is a friend of a friend who happens to be a great photographer here in the Dayton, OH area. This photo of  “Cindy” is one of his. She is one of the Dayton area nesting eagles and was photographed near the Mad River well field/Eastwood Lake. His photos are often seen on TV channel 7.

Baby Hummers: You REALLY need to add one more nest cam to your day. This one is an Anna’s Hummingbird nest in CA. The nest was built in a rose bush and is no larger than a golf ball. The 2 babies are about 2 weeks old and are already trying to stretch their wings. The parents patiently feed them a mixture of nectar and insects about every 15-30 minutes. At this rate, I’ll never get anything done around the house!

Great sales opps around the state

Here are a couple more places to visit to get your plant fix:  Saturday, May 6-7: Chadwick Arboretum & Learning Center (OSU, Columbus, OH) will hold their annual plant sale, auction and Garden Fair featuring over 10,000 plants. Saturday, May 21: Dawes Arboretum (Newark OH) hold its annual spring plant sale and Garden Fair.

Governor's Residence, Columbus OH

Governor’s Residence looking for volunteers

Did you know you can help maintain the Heritage Garden at the Governor’s Residence? You and your friends can provide hands-on help and have fun in the Heritage Garden through planting, thinning, transplanting, weeding.

When? The 2nd Wednesdays of the month – 9 am to 12 noon – May through October (May 11, June 8, July 13, August 10, September 14 and October 12) and the  4th Wednesdays of the month – 9 am to 1 pm (speaker at noon) – May through October (May 25, June 22, July 27, August 24, September 28 and October 26. (There will be a special celebration lunch on September 28.) An Orientation (Must be registered by April 1) will be held on April 27th from 1-3 pm. If you attend you will receive a t-shirt, see the new volunteer meeting space and get a special tour of the property.

Where? Ohio Governor’s Residence: 358 N. Parkview Ave, Columbus OH 43209, (614) 644-7644)

Wear: Outdoor work clothes and dress for the weather

Bring: Tools for weeding and transplanting, kneeling pad, gloves, plastic bags for weeds, shovel, trowel, etc. brown bag lunch, and hear a speaker on the 4th  Wednesdays of the month. It’s great to bring a friend or two – the more, the merrier. There are plenty of things to do and each week is different.

Interested? Contact Hope Taft at Ohiohoper@yahoo.com. A security check is required.

Busy as a bee

Bee on a pussy willow blossom (Salix sp.)

The warm weather is bringing more out than the bees! Note the pollen sacs on this hard worker in the photo…. Everyone seems to want to clean up their beds. Including me. While in the garden, I managed to embed a big sliver of a plant stem so deep in my knuckle that it required visit to the doctor. One tetanus shot, a scalpel and a suture to close the incision and I was good to go. That’s when I wish my imaginary gardener, Thor, wasn’t so imaginary!

Baker’s Acres Greenhouse opens!

Saturday, March 26 is Opening Day at Baker’s Acres. Crazy people like me can and will drive 2 hours to visit this greenhouse in search for unusual annuals and perennials. Located east of Columbus, yet west of Granville, you will not be disappointed. Consider this: Over 100 varieties of coleus, give or take. See what I mean?

Wegerzyn Gardens MetroPark prepares for Patrick Dougherty Exhibit

Willow saplings for the Patrick Dougherty installation

This spring, internationally renowned artist Patrick Dougherty will create and install one of his unique outdoor sculptures at Wegerzyn Gardens MetroPark. The massive structures are made entirely of woven saplings and resemble nests, lairs, and mythic shelters. While visiting the Englewood MetroPark I came across one of the semi-trailers that is already being loaded with young willow trees to be used in the exhibit. He will be in Dayton from April 4-22 and with the help of many volunteers, create an original woven-branch sculpture that will remain in place for about two years. Sponsored, in part, by the Wegerzyn Gardens Foundation.

Bald Eagle Cams

I can’t believe how easily I got hooked on watching, or at least checking in on, the Decorah (Iowa) Bald Eagle nest cam. I feel like I’m right in the nest with them. The best part, other than the view, is that the cam streams audio as well so that you can hear what is going on. There are three eggs in the nest and the estimated first hatch date is around April 1.

This isn’t the only bald eagle nest cam around. Here is a link to one at the Norfolk (VA) Botanical Garden. It does not have audio but the three chicks have already hatched and you can watch the parents feeding them. You can also participate in a moderated discussion board on the eagles.

Locally, we have eagles named Jim and Cindy on a nest at Eastwood Lake. Here is that link.  On Tuesday I saw another local nest in the Englewood MetroParks area. If you want to check it out, you have to park in a tiny improvised specially-marked parking spot off of River Road in Englewood and then walk about 1/2 mile to an observation point. Once there, you are still about a 1/4 mile from the nest. Even from that distance, it is a neat thing to see.

Calendar updates

Be sure to check the Calendar Events tab often as I update items there that may not be featured in the regular posts. What’s new? Aullwood Audubon Center’s Native Plant Sale and more.


Spring is here!

American Woodcock

Some may think that spring arrives with the sighting of the first robin, crocus, witch hazel, skunk cabbage….the list goes on. For others, however, it is hearing the quirky mating song of the American Woodcock (take a listen here). Seldom seen, this odd bird is a member of the sandpiper family that has evolved to live in moist woodlands and eat earthworms. It arrives in Ohio from its wintering grounds as early as February. During courtship at dusk, it makes a buzzing bzzzzzeeeeep sound (some say it sounds like: peeeent) that is not unlike a nighthawk’s call. The males put on a spectacular arial display climbing high in the sky, only to plummet down to earth twittering all the way. Though I did not see them on my outing, I did hear both the buzzing calls and the twittering descent here in Centerville OH. I suppose spring is officially here!

Sales alerts

Knollwood Garden Center – If you missed their pansy sale last week, do not fret. There is still a great selection of pansy bowls on sale for $9.99 through Sunday.

Grandma’s Gardens – The Spring Preview is underway with 20% off everything through Sunday.

Siebenthaler’s – The Beavercreek location only is offering a sale on ceramic pottery at 40-75% off through Sunday.

Educational Opportunities

Richard Louv, author of “Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder” will speak Sunday, March 27 – 7:00 p.m. at the James and Caroline Duff Banquet Center in the Cintas Center – Xavier University, Cincinnati OH.

His book stimulated an international conversation about the future relationship between children and nature. He serves as chair of the Children and Nature Network, which encourages and supports people and organizations working to reconnect children with nature. The event is FREE and open to the public. For more information, e-mail frickman@xavier.edu or visit www.xavier.edu/ers/lecture

Gardening Symposium

The Ohio State University Extension Gardening Symposium Series will be held Thursday, March 31 from 9:30 am – 3:30 pm at Polen Farm, 5099 Bigger Rd., Kettering, OH. The day will offer informative speakers & choice of hands-on workshop with one-on-one instruction, materials provided. Beverage and box lunch provided included in the $40 registration fee. Register before March 22, 2011.  Space is limited.  Visit http://montgomery.osu.edu/topics/horticulture/hort-downloads/2011%20Spri… for more details and to register.

Hello World!

The following is a repeat of my last group email. I’m trying to work my way into a blog so bear with me……

Hello Friends,

Remember the recipe for the Zick Bird Dough I mentioned a while back? If you click on this link Feathered Friends you should be able to see some of the photos I’ve taken of the birds that are eating my Bird Dough. I love watching the birds even more now that I purchased new binoculars! I can SEE! If you are in the market for a pair, I can recommend the style that I purchased.

Here Are Some Things to See:
Orchid Display –

Franklin Park Conservatory – Columbus


I recently had the opportunity to meet Ohio’s former first lady Hope Taft at the Franklin Park Conservatory in Columbus. (There is a new project underway at the Governor’s Residence which I’ll highlight at another time.) The jewel in the conservatory this trip was the current display, “Orchid Forest”, now going on through April 3. The orchids were spectacular! For hours, admission and directions, visit www.fpconservatory.org/. There is a wonderful bonus to those of you who are members of the American Horticulture Society – always free entrance to the conservatory! Here are more pictures from the exhibit.

Orchid Show – Cox Arboretum – February 19 & 20 – Dayton
Hundreds of orchids will be on display, as well as orchids and other items for purchase. Informal orchid talks and repotting classes will be held throughout the weekend. This event is sponsored by the Miami Valley Orchid Society.

Educational Opportunities
Workshops at Benham’s Grove – Centerville
Centerville’s City Beautiful Commission has two workshops planned.
1. Master gardener Kathleen Garnica, from “The Secreat Garden,” will present “A Few of My Favorite Things.” at 10 am on Saturday, February 12 at Benham’s Grove (166 N. Main St. in Centerville). The free workshop will feature garden art, container gardens and appropriate plants for container gardens. Reservations are not required.
2. Marvin Duren (Note: OAGC honored Marvin with the 2009 Daisy Sticksel Conservation Award) of “Marvin’s Organic Gardens” will discuss composting and organic care of lawns and plants at 10 am on Saturday, March 12 at the Department of Public works on South Suburban Road in Centerville. Reservations are not required for this free event.

Miami Valley Gardening Conference – Sinclair University, Dayton
Five Rivers MetroParks is presenting a special event on Saturday, March 5. (What is it with March 5??? I can’t be three places at once!) The 16th annual Miami Valley Gardening Conference offers a day of learning with over 15 speakers and several mini-classes/demonstrations. Keynote speakers include Peter Del Tredici , senior research scientist of Harvard University’s Arnold Arboretum, and Jeff Lowenfels, noted soil and garden expert. Speakers are garden experts from OSU, Five Rivers MetroParks and nurseries in the Dayton area. There will also be two cooking presentations by the Culinary Department at Sinclair. During lunch and the afternoon break there will be hands-on demonstrations of valuable skills for all gardeners. Parking is also included. Read more/register at http://metroparks.org/conference

Dayton Home and Garden Show – March 4-6 – Dayton Convention Center
A follow up from the previous issue publicity on the Home and Garden Show
Question: Regarding the Friday, March 4 half-price tickets for garden clubbers – Are the tickets only good for Friday? Do separate tickets have to be purchased for each day or is there an inclusive ticket for all three days available?
Answer: There are no all-event pass tickets to purchase, However, you can purchase pre-sale tickets at half price and use them on any of the 3 days as there are no dates printed on them. Each ticket is good for one day. Tickets can be mailed out or they can be picked up at the Will-Call booth. Guests/friends or family members can also use the discounted tickets.Tickets are a bargain at $4. Partake in any of the classes on the big stage as well as to any of the ‘How To’ Garden Series on the small stage PLUS entrance to the Dayton Home and Garden Show.  A couple of speakers you don’t want to miss, on Friday at 10 am Pam Bennet from Ohio State talks about “Proven Plants for Color” and then at 4 pm don’t miss Barb Balgoyen of Walters Gardens of Michigan and her presentation  “New and Exciting Perennials for 2011.” Walters Gardens is one of the leading wholesalers in the nation. Saturday highlights include:  11am when Randy Zondag of The Ohio State University & Alan Siewart Ohio Division of Foresty  put on ‘”Tree pruning and training boot camp”: A hands-on class where you will actually use pruners to learn the proper way to trim. At 5:30pm John Scott of Knollwood Garden Center talks on “Container Gardening” and shows how to make A BIG IMPACT!

Flora-Quest – May 1 & 2 – Shawnee State Park
Many of Ohio’s foremost botanists will be leading field trips the weekend of April 29 – May 1 in the beautiful hills of Shawnee State Forest in southern Ohio. Flora-Quest is a botanical retreat geared towards learning and appreciating the most spectacular flora in all of Ohio. Check it out at  http://flora-quest.com/ (Wistful thought: I want to get to this some day…….)

This ‘n That
Commission Offers Grants – Centerville
The Centerville City Beautiful Commission is offering $250 Beautification Grants to nonprofit groups or volunteers who demonstrate a commitment to the beautification of the city of Centerville. More information can be found at http://www.ci.centerville.oh.us/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=801&Itemid=1658.

Great Backyard Bird Count – February 18-21
The 2011 Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC) will take place Friday, February 18, through Monday, February 21. The Great Backyard Bird Count is an annual four-day event that engages bird watchers of all ages in counting birds to create a real-time snapshot of where the birds are across the continent. Anyone can participate, from beginning bird watchers to experts. It takes as little as 15 minutes on one day, or you can count for as long as you like each day of the event. It’s free, fun, and easy—and it helps the birds. Participants count birds anywhere for as little or as long as they wish during the four-day period. They tally the highest number of birds of each species seen together at any one time. To report their counts, they fill out an online checklist at the Great Backyard Bird Count website. Go to http://www.birdsource.org/gbbc/whycount.html for more information.

Edible Art for Birds
Here is a cute way to get our young’uns interested in bird watching. It is a video from our friends at the Department of Natural Resources and shows how we can provide food for backyard birds in a fun and creative way. All you need is some bird seed and a little snow. Check out this edible art for wildlife project at:  http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Default.aspx?tabid=21318

Ohio Record Tree located in our area
Did you get a chance to go to the ODNR’s Ohio Champion Tree link from a post or two ago? I discovered that there is a local celebrity growing in our area. Listed among the Ohio Champion Non-Native Trees is a  Littleleaf Linden (Tilia cordata) tree located at Bethany Lutheran Village in Centerville. The current record holder measures 195″ in circumference and is approximately 79′ tall!

World Flower Show Trip Update
The Ohio Association of Garden Club’s (OAGC) bus trip to Boston and the World Flower Show in June is basically sold out with two buses. If you have already paid a deposit to reserve your spot, trip coordinator Susy Spence (sspence@oagc.org) is now accepting the balance due. The optional $40 trip insurance should be paid at this time as well. A waiting list has been formed.

You Can Help Make a Difference
Dear Friends of Chadwick Arboretum & Learning Gardens,
The Chadwick Arboretum and Learning Gardens is a self-funded organization maintaining 60 acres of green space on The Ohio State University campus. During the past year a green roof team has been focused on designing and installing a green roof (vegetative) on Howlett Hall. Just last month, the Arboretum received a generous donation toward the Green Roof at Howlett Hall project, but we are continuing to raise funds and write grants.

The irrigation company RainBird is promoting an inter-active grant award program The Intelligent Use of Water Awards. If you are inclined, please take a minute to go to the link below and vote for the Chadwick Arboretum’s Green Roof project and help raise another $10,000. The project with the most votes wins a $10,000 reward. You can vote once a day until March 22, 2011 so spread the word!


Thanks for your help!
Mary C. Maloney
Director, Ohio State University Chadwick Arboretum & Learning Gardens

January 19, 2011

Here is a follow up reply from the previous post…..

Re the question: Where do you store your birdseed?
I have good luck using large plastic trash cans with tight fitting lids. I use one each for my nyjer, black oil sunflower seed and dog food (when I had a dog). Our local mill has great process on 50# quantities of bird feed and the tight lid protects them from the critters. My only problem: the closed container provides a horizontal surface on which to put stuff.  — Babs in Beavercreek

Ohio’s Big Trees
Since 1940, the conservation group American Forests has documented the largest known specimens of every native and naturalized tree in the United States. Each Big Tree receives a score based on trunk circumference, crown spread and total height. Do you want to know where they are? Do you think you have a champion in your neck of the woods? Big Trees are generally found in yards, parks, arboretums and cemeteries where their size stands out. They are less frequently found in dense forests where trees have much more competition for growth. Learn more about it at this ODNR link: Ohio Big Trees

Emerald Ashborer (EAB) information from Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) Urban Forester Wendi Van Buren:
SW Ohio Communities,

ODNR continues to provide communities, organizations, and individuals with the most up to date EAB management information, so that you can make the best decisions for your community.  I am proud of the number of communities in SW Ohio who have developed EAB Management Plans specifically for the needs and resources for your communities.  Most of you have EAB Management Plans that have all three components (treatment, removal, and let die naturally) as parts of your Plans depending on the condition and placement of the ash trees in your town.  I think you will find the attached Statement document from the Coalition for Urban Ash Tree Conservation helpful.

Coalition for Urban Ash Tree Conservation Statement

“We the undersigned strongly endorse ash tree conservation as a fundamental component of integrated programs to manage emerald ash borer (EAB) in residential and municipal landscapes. Cost-effective, environmentally sound EAB treatment protocols are now available that can preserve ash trees through peak EAB outbreaks with healthy canopy intact. Used in association with tree inventories and strategic removal / replacement of unhealthy ash, tree conservation will help retain maximum integrity and value of urban forests. This integrated approach to urban EAB management is supported by university scientists with expertise in EAB management, commercial arborists, municipal foresters, public works officials, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).”

EAB Management Plan Resources

Seed/Plant catalogs are hitting the mailboxes and email boxes
Bluestone Perennials – An Ohio nursery and your source for over 1000 varieties of perennials, grasses, mums, shrubs, herbs and fall bulbs.

Brent and Becky’s Bulbs – Bulb growers since 1900, their 2011 Summer-Flowering Bulbs Catalogue is now out. When you visit Brent and Becky’s at the link above, please select the Ohio Association of Garden Clubs from the drop down menu. The Ohio Association of Garden Clubs will earn a percentage of your non-sale purchase.

Harris Seed Company – Vegetable, flower seeds. Bulbs, corms, plants and more. Catalog sales began in 1879. For free shipping and handling on orders placed by March 31, 2011 – use promo code 1PRW104. (Not valid on High Tunnels, plugs & liners and bulk Worm Power)

Totally Tomatoes – Specializing in tomato and pepper seeds. You never knew there was so much selection in variety of tomatoes and peppers. I found my beloved Amish Paste Tomato here.

D. Landreth Seed Company – Selling seeds since 1794, they are the oldest seed company in the U.S. This is where I found the seed to an heirloom purple pole bean, Purple Peacock. I had originally received the seed through The Ohio Association of Garden Club’s Gardening for Excellence seed program. I loved them so much I went on the search to find the seed.

Plant Delights Nusery – A mail order company in Raleigh, NC specializing in new and unusual perennials known well for their hosta selection and much more. Their catalog will be a feast for the eyes and may give you a fit of the giggles as well.

Educational Opportunities
It is said that the mind is a terrible thing to waste. It’s also said that if you don’t use it, you lose it. One way to keep in the game is to take advantage of the numerous educational advantages available to us every day – if only we know where to look. Here are just a few of some of the more notable options around the state:

Adams County Amish Bird Symposium – March 5 (West Union, OH)
I look forward to and have attended this symposium for about 4 years now. It is VERY popular and is limited to 300 attendees. It features experts who are top in their fields, vendors and Amish-made doughnuts and lunch. Speakers include: The Big Year (Greg Miller from the Amish community); Birding Field Guides: The Beginning and The End (Jim Berry, director of the Roger Tory Peterson Institute); Living on the Wind: the Miracle of Bird Migration (Scott Wiedensaul, author); Close Encounters (Matthew Studebaker, photographer); Kirtland’s Warbler Winter Habitat Conservation (Claire Larkin). Read more here: Amish Bird Symposium

2011 Ohio Wildlife Diversity Conference- Connecting Wildlife, Habitat and People – March 9 (Columbus, OH)
Sponsored by ODNR’s Division of Wildlife. Topics include: Sandhill cranes; Distribution of Softshell turtles; Conservation genetics and the Eastern massasugas rattlesnake; Fishing access for steelhead trout and riparian corridor protection; Evaluating stress in hellbenders (hellbenders are salamanders and are the largest amphibians found in Ohio, some up to 27″ long!); Fostering Conservation Partnerships the Wildlife Officer Way; Birding for Everyone. The new 2011 Ohio Wildlife Legacy Stamp will make its debut. I can’t wait to go! Read more here: Wildlife Diversity Conference

2011 Ohio Botanical Symposium – March 25 (Columbus, OH)
Presented by the Ohio Division of Wildlife, in cooperation with  the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, The Nature Conservancy and The Ohio State University herbarium. This symposium is for anyone who shares and interest in Ohio’s flora, wildlife and natural history. Topics include: What Climate Change May Mean for Plants: Global, National and Regional Consequences; Best Plant Discoveries of 2010; Ohio’s Native Clovers and Their Kin; Oak Openings’ Butterflies; Assessing Invaisiveness in Ohio’s Plants: Revising the List of Top Invaders; What Was That Botanist Thinking?: The Meanings Behind the Names of Ohio Plants; Circle of Time: The Life, Death and Rebirth of an Ancient Landscape. Read more here: Ohio Botanical Symposium I’m going to this too!

In a Garden of Eden: The Medicinal and Edible Plants of the Appalachian Mountains – April 14 (Pomeroy, OH)
Sponsored by The Ohio State University Meigs County Extension, this seminar held April 14 in Pomery, Ohio features some great native plant speakers. The brochure is attached.

Another Awesome Blog to Visit

December 2010

I hope that everyone had a wonderful Christmas! I know I enjoyed a great Christmas meal (quite out of the ordinary brunch and a movie) with the hubby, my mom, both children, their spouses, our first grandchild and an in-law from Germany. It just might turn out to be a NEW tradition! My red cabbage with apples got a big thumbs-up from my German-native daughter-in-law and her father who was visiting for the holidays.

Christmas presents
Did you get something for the gardener in you? I did! If you enjoy birdwatching, you’ll agree that a good field guide can make all the difference in the world with regards to identifying your birds. I received the Stokes Field Guide to the Birds of North America. At over 800 pages and 3400 photographs this book is a bargain at its list price of $24.99. However, you can purchase this book for under 17.00 if you shop around on line (click on the link above). It even includes a CD of 150 birdsongs.

Open Meeting Reminder
Don’t forget that my club, the Here & There Garden Club, invites you to attend their 2011 Open Meeting 7:30 pm on Tuesday, January 4, 2011 at the Prince of Peace Church of the Brethren (800 E. David Rd., Kettering OH 45429). Bob Iiames, Master Gardener, will speak on “Perennials that Pop – from Bed to Dead”. Refreshments will be served. Bring your friends.

Question of the week:
Sharon in Cincinnati asks: How and where do you store your birdseed?
Vicki’s answer: Thankfully, I do not have any winter heat-seeking rodents in my garage. Well, none that I know of! Considering I am using up seed quicker than Mr. Mickey Mouse can eat it, my sunflower seed and Nyjer seed is just stored in the unheated garage in their 25 lb bags. However, I have been also known to store my seed in a recycled tub/bucket who’s former life was a 28-lb container of clumping cat litter and in the large recycled styrofoam container that Omaha Steaks came shipped in. I would never suggest that you keep seed inside your house unless it is in an air-tight container. All it takes is one infestation of Pantry Moths (that came in the birdseed) to learn that lesson the hard way. (Kinda reminds you of my ‘school of hard knocks’ tip from freezing faucets from the last post?) Does anyone have any other response?

Oooooh, that reminds me. I want to pass along a great recipe for winter feeding your birds. I religiously follow the OAGC 2010 keynote convention speaker Julie Zickefoose’s blog (http://juliezickefoose.blogspot.com). She is also on facebook. She has a home recipe for winter bird dough. Please be sure to read her full post on Zick Dough before you try to make it. Your bird will thank you!

Melt and stir together:
1 cup peanut butter
1 cup lard

In a large mixing bowl, combine:
2 cups chick starter (unmedicated – I bought mine at Tractor Supply. 20# bag for $7.99)
2 cups quick oats
1 cup yellow cornmeal
1 cup flour

True or False: Is Mistletoe the “Kiss of Death?”

There is a myth about American Mistletoe, the green-berried parasitic plant often hung in doorways during the holiday season to elicit kisses from those standing beneath it. Reputed to be the “kiss of death,” it is said to be so poisonous that humans can be killed if they ingest the leaves or berries. This myth has been endlessly repeated throughout the years, reappearing every December in countless holiday safety reports on television and in print.

Is it true? Is American Mistletoe (Phoradendron species), a holiday killer? Two physicians and researchers from Pittsburgh decided to find out. Dr. Edward P. Krenzelok (Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh) and Dr. Terry Jacobson (Carnegie Mellon University) examined data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers and found 1,754 reports of mistletoe exposure over a seven-year span. Curiously, not only had no one died of mistletoe poisoning, in the overwhelming majority of the cases (approximately 90%), the patient experienced no effects at all. Those patients who did have effects suffered only minor discomfort. Treatment at a poison control center or at home made no discernible difference in patients’ recovery or outcome. (Source: eNature.com)